Using the Stages of Team Development MIT Human Resources

  • 公開日:2021.03.11

In this stage, groups often become more comfortable asking for what they need in a productive manner and offering feedback on team and leadership performance. It’s important to remember that teams in the Norming stage may not yet have gotten everything right and still need guidance and consideration as they move towards becoming an effective team. It’s vital to stay alert to team dynamics and both individual and group performance – you may want to course correct or further strengthen certain aspects of how your team works together.

Two Leagues, 'Same Page' -

Two Leagues, 'Same Page'.

Posted: Tue, 01 Nov 2022 07:00:00 GMT [source]

The team then progresses to the storming phase – where they start to compete and challenge each other. Then comes norming phase – when the team learns how to work together and get stuff done. And thereafter, finally, the team may attain or reach the performing phase – when the trust is at its peak, and they act as one. In my previous article, I wrote about team dynamics and dysfunctions, taking that discussion further, I will explore stages of team development. And suggestions for leaders on how to build a highly efficient, high-performing, happy team.

Learning Formats

It seems very neat to define the stages of team formation and development; however, each team is different, and the team development model may not be as linear as it appears. Several factors come into play like – past experiences, previous working relationships etc. And interestingly, at times, teams do not progress through the stages as a whole unit. Having fun together can be an often overlooked element of team development.

team development model

A leader should concentrate on developing performance of the team. Team Development Models can also help leaders shorten the experimentation journey to create great and high performing teams that last. Identify a facilitator – a good facilitator enforces the ground rules and drives the group forward. The most effective teams can rotate leaders regularly to avoid burnout without affecting their performance.

Software Development​​

All teams are made up of individuals with varying skill sets, perspectives, and needs. As groups work together, conflicts in thinking, approach, or working practices can and will arise. While conflict can be unpleasant, this often stems not from the fact we have differences of opinion but that our methods of articulating or responding to conflict can create friction or the feeling of being attacked.

Members feel confident in their individual abilities and those of their teammates. The agile approach places significant emphasis on empowered teams, and we discussed some of the facets of such self-organizing teams in one of the previous articles. One of the great tools that help in the team development journey is the Tuckman team development model. Tuckman model is an approach to team development that helps teams understand their current state and develop strategies to move towards their goals. Tuckman identified four stages of team development, including Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing.

In the performing stage, consensus and cooperation have been well-established and the team is mature, organized, and well-functioning. There is a clear and stable structure, and members are committed to the team’s mission. Problems and conflicts still emerge, but they are dealt with constructively.

Expert coaching — the possibility of high-quality training and mentoring for all team members. Compelling direction — whether the team has clear and consequential goals. We each face our own, ever-changing set of personal and work-related challenges and opportunities. These webinars offer research-based strategies, tips, and information to help you be better prepared for whatever life presents next.

Set individual roles and expectations

It’s quite another for team members to understand what specific responsibilities each person has and how that fits into the larger picture. Full knowledge of the skills that everyone brings to the table, like development, web design, marketing, or product knowledge. This background will help the team solve problems faster and get the right information to the correct person on the first try.

team development model

Get in touch in the comments section below and share your experiences with the community. Tuckman’s model of group development can help you understand how a team might theoretically grow, but alone it isn’t sufficient to help your team succeed and meaningfully develop. Being conscious of the process is a great place to start, but it’s worth remembering that reaching the performing stage isn’t a given and many teams get stuck early on. To effectively move forward with team development, a group first needs to understand their purpose and overall goals.

Why is Team Development Important?

Performing – during the fourth stage, members are satisfied with the team’s process toward a goal. They feel confident in their abilities and also in the abilities of colleagues. Roles and responsibilities may also become more fluid as help is provided to those who need it. When this happens, members return to their roots, to their other teams or different organizations or formed again in another activity.

team development model

The most commonly used framework for a team's stages of development was developed in the mid-1960s by Bruce W. Tuckman. Although many authors have written variations and enhancements to Tuckman's work, his descriptions of Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing provide a useful framework for looking at your own team. Team development refers to a process and activities for improving team performance. Team development activities can range from simple bonding exercises to intensive, multi-day team development retreats. ​This powerful tool for developing and sustaining teams is used as a framework and common language for supporting a team-based culture and includes the following stages.

Leadership and management

One vital thing to remember is that it’s important to accept that personal differences in working style or goal perception are part of being in a team. Only by discussing and working on those things together can you move forward and progress to the next stage of team development. Most high-performing teams go through five stages of team development.

Additionally, misalignment on goals and working practices can come up, creating clashes of personalities. While most teams progress through the stages of the Tuckman model of team development in a linear fashion, it is not inevitable. Without attentive leadership, well-designed processes, and teamwork, groups can become stuck in the earlier stages of the development process. If teams get through the storming stage, conflict is resolved and some degree of unity emerges.

  • This team development activity helps guide a group through a structured discussion by focusing attention on six different areas, surfacing any challenges, and then voting on what is most important to the group.
  • Adjourning also means changing and inadvertently, this would induce uncertainly and anxiety to some members.
  • During the developmental phase, the leader of the group also adopts a new leadership style.
  • There is still a need for the team to focus on both process and product, setting new goals as appropriate.

Remember that every team needs different amounts of training and support. Some need only a little guidance; others require extensive coaching. The important thing is to identify which style suits your current situation. Consider asking your manager or supervisor to evaluate your team based on specific criteria such as customer satisfaction scores, quality metrics, and productivity rates. The following table represents the team attitude on these three factors during each stage of development. Members begin to argue among themselves as they figure out where they stand within the team’s hierarchy.

Performing stage

A "can do" attitude is visible as are offers to assist one another. Roles on the team may have become more fluid, with members taking on various roles and responsibilities as needed. Differences among members are appreciated and used to enhance the team's performance. Finally, once all members have learned how to cooperate effectively, the team performs better than ever before. Everyone works together smoothly and efficiently towards achieving shared objectives.

This way, your group can feel safe to surface any areas of concern while also being sure to avoid making things too personal or getting bogged down in blame or the potentially messier parts of the discussion. During this stage, team members can often be excited, anxious, or uncertain of their place within a team and will try to figure out their role in the group. The role of the team leader is especially vital during Forming, as group members will look to them for guidance, direction, and leadership. Finally, share the project roadmap so the team can see the starting point, the proposed check-in points, and the end goal. This gives them insight into the bigger goal but also breaks down the timeline into smaller increments.

Rubin, Plovnick and Fry were among the first who published team effectiveness model back in 1977. This is known as GRPI Model that stands for Goals, Roles, Processes four stages of team development и Interpersonal relationships as key aspects of collaboration. However, like it’s with Tuckman’s and any widespread model, the GRPI model has some limitations.

According to this model, teams might begin a given period of development at different stages and spend different amounts of time in the various stages. Teams are not always expected to progress in a linear fashion through all of the stages. Leaders first seek to understand team competence and commitment level to adjust their leadership style and behaviour. Consider this following situational leadership grid and notice different leadership styles at different team development phases/stages. To be and remain most efficient and productive – the team must reach the performing stage of team development.

Conflict can often arise if members of a team don’t feel as if their needs are being met by others on the team or the regular give and take of effective teamwork breaks down. Conflicts around how teams work together often come from misunderstandings in responsibilities or how roles interrelate. You can help a team move towards more effective working practices by ensuring every team member is able to articulate what they need from other members and leaders and be heard and understood in this process. In this post, we’ll explore Bruce Tuckman’s theory of team development while also offering practical advice, actions, and team building activities you can take to help your group grow and work together more cohesively. All groups are composed of individuals with different needs, communication styles, and working practices. When bringing those individuals together and engaging in team development, leaders will need to find ways to help everyone work together effectively and grow as individuals and as a group.

  • よく分かった (0)
  • 難しかった (0)


  • Lineにシェア
  • はてなブックマークにシェア


  • コツコツ積立の魅力
  • 初心者向けおすすめ本